Depending on the increasing world population with a rapid increase and improving industry, energy demand is increasing and based on this, value scissor between existing energy production and consumption is expanding. Global energy consumption is predicted to be doubled in the year 2035 compared to the consumed energy in the year of 1998 and in 2055 it is predicted to be tripled.
In a global scale, Turkey’s margin is approximately 1% in energy consumption and Turkey became the first among other OECD countries in the increase of energy request for the last 10 years period. Across the world, Turkey ranks 21th in energy consumption and 19th in energy production. %43 of the total energy of Turkey is obtained from natural gas, %25 of it is from coal, %25 of it is from hydroelectric power plants and remaining is obtained from wind and other renewable energy resources.
As a result of rapidly increasing energy demand, available native energy resources remain incapable, being in the first place, natural gas, our foreign dependency is rapidly increasing. This situation generates the need for new seekings and new regulations.
In 1935, Electric Management started within Etibank in our country had been transferred to Türk Elektrik Kurumu. Between the years of 1970 and 1993, Turkey Electric Institution which is responsible for production, conduction and distribution is restructured into two separate public economic enterprises named as Türkiye Elektrik Üretim İletim A.Ş. (TEAŞ) and Türkiye Elektrik Dağıtım A.Ş. (TEDAŞ). By a law passed by the year 2001, TEAŞ was abrogated and restructured into three seperate public economic enterprises namely; Türkiye Elektrik İletim A.Ş. (TEİAŞ), Elektrik Üretim A.Ş. (EÜAŞ) ve Türkiye Elektrik Ticaret ve Taahhüt A.Ş. (TETAŞ)
Public structure which is holding the Elektrik Energy sector in its hands, with the aim of minimizing the costs of high rehabilitation, modernization and production, speeding up the progress of the sector and had revealed a privatization plan in order to decrease the foreign dependency to a minimum level. By the Electric Marketplace Law No. 6446 effectuated in 2013, it carried this privatization plan into effect.
In the sector, at first, regional electric distribution companies are privatized and with regional planning, privatization of electric production plants are started. Furthermore, with government promotions provided to private sector; establishment of newly energy plants are enabled and with the aim of minimizing foreign dependency, necessary actions were taken.
From the year 2013 till now, by new projects, which private sector put into practice by investments, privatization and government promotions; foreign dependency is tried to be decreased to a minimum level. In domestic market, as in the GSM companies, it is planned satisfy the energy need of the consumers with a lower cost by forming a competition environment.
In 2003, Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EPDK) decreased Free Consumer Limit 9.000.000 kWh gradually and for the year 2017 this limit is determined to be 2400 kWh. According to this, each subscriber having yearly consumption of 2400 KwH, can be able to procure the energy need from a preferred company or a supplier by negotiation regardless of city or region restriction. In this way, subscribers satisfy their energy need with a lower price.
Strategic Planning in Energy Sector
At the present time, primary resources in the world’s energy production are petrol, natural gas and coal which are unrenewable energy resources. New resource and policy needs
Since our country is dependent on the foreign energy resources in respect to petrol and natural gas and insufficiency of coal reserves to satisfy the country energy need level caused new resources and laws to be constituted. Looking from a strategical perspective, Turkey has advantageous position to be an energy corridor among resigons where natural gas resources are produced and consumed. In relation with this, in first place, Trans Anadolu Natural Gas Pipeline Project (TANAP) and Türk Akımı Project indicate that Turkey is the most appropriate route for the access of Israel, North Iraqi and at last, newly descried Egypt Gases to the international marketplace. On the other hand, because of the minimization of energy resources with limited reserves in the world and in our country, high production costs and harmness to the nature, orientation to alternative energy resources in energy production. Since our country has an appropriate geographical structure for renewable energy and recent government promotions; energy investments are accelerated.
With newly developed long-termed policies developed by taking the strategic position of Turkey and its geographical structure into consideration; it seems likely to get rid of foreign dependency in energy sector and Turkey will reach the level of an energy exporting country.